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Título : Conservation and Use of Latin American Maize Diversity: Pillar of Nutrition Security and Cultural Heritage of Humanity
Autor : Guzzon, Filippo
Arandia Rios, Luis Walquer
Caviedes Cepeda, Galo Mario
Céspedes Polo, Marcia
Chávez Cabrera, Alexander
Muriel Figueroa, Jesús
Medina Hoyos, Alicia Elizabeth
Jara Calvo, Teófilo Wladimir
Molnar, Terence L.
Narro León, Luis Alberto
Narro León, Teodoro Patricio
Mejía Kerguelén, Sergio Luis
Ospina Rojas, José Gabriel
Vásquez, Gricelda
Preciado Ortiz, Ricardo Ernesto
Zambrano, José Luis
Palacios Rojas, Natalia
Pixley, Kevin
Fecha de publicación : 15-ene-2021
Resumen : Latin America is the center of domestication and diversity of maize, the second most cultivated crop worldwide. In this region, maize landraces are fundamental for food security, livelihoods, and culture. Nevertheless, genetic erosion (i.e., the loss of genetic diversity and variation in a crop) threatens the continued cultivation and in situ conservation of landrace diversity that is crucial to climate change adaptation and diverse uses of maize. We provide an overview of maize diversity in Latin America before discussing factors associated with persistence of large in situ maize diversity, causes for maize landrace abandonment by farmers, and strategies to enhance the cultivation of landraces. Among other factors, maize diversity is linked with: (1) small-holder farming, (2) the production of traditional food products, (3) traditional cropping systems, (4) cultivation in marginal areas, and (5) retention of control over the production system by the farmers. On the other hand, genetic erosion is associated with substitution of landraces with hybrid varieties or cash crops, and partial (off-farm labor) or complete migration to urban areas. Continued cultivation, and therefore on-farm conservation of genetic diversity held in maize landraces, can be encouraged by creating or strengthening market opportunities that make the cultivation of landraces and open pollinated varieties (OPVs) more profitable for farmers, supporting breeding programs that prioritize improvement of landraces and their special traits, and increasing the access to quality germplasm of landraces and landrace-derived OPVs.
Palabras clave : Agrobiodiversity
Genetic erosion
Maize breeding
Maize landraces
Maize races
Open pollinated varieties
On farm conservation
Plant genetic resources
Value chain
Editorial : MDPI
Citación : Guzzon, F.; Arandia Rios, L.W.; Caviedes Cepeda, G.M.; Céspedes Polo, M.; Chavez Cabrera, A.; Muriel Figueroa, J.; Medina Hoyos, A.E.; Jara Calvo, T.W.; Molnar, T.L.; Narro León, L.A.; et al. Conservation and Use of Latin American Maize Diversity: Pillar of Nutrition Security and Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Agronomy 2021, 11, 172. doi: 10.3390/agronomy11010172
URI : https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12955/1660
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010172
metadata.dc.subject.ocde: https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#4.05.00
Aparece en las colecciones: Artículos científicos

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